Iexplorer 4.2.7 keygen free download.DriverDoc 5.3.521 Crack 2022 For Windows 10 and 11 Free Download

Looking for:

Iexplorer 4.2.7 keygen free download

Click here to Download

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

When the nearest ancestor sectioning content or sectioning root element is the body element , then it applies to the whole page. The header element is not sectioning content ; it doesn’t introduce a new section. In this example, the page has a page heading given by the h1 element, and two subsections whose headings are given by h2 elements. The content after the header element is still part of the last subsection started in the header element, because the header element doesn’t take part in the outline algorithm.

The footer element represents a footer for its nearest ancestor sectioning content or sectioning root element. A footer typically contains information about its section such as who wrote it, links to related documents, copyright data, and the like. When the footer element contains entire sections, they represent appendices, indexes, long colophons, verbose license agreements, and other such content. Contact information for the author or editor of a section belongs in an address element, possibly itself inside a footer.

Bylines and other information that could be suitable for both a header or a footer can be placed in either or neither. The primary purpose of these elements is merely to help the author write self-explanatory markup that is easy to maintain and style; they are not intended to impose specific structures on authors.

Footers don’t necessarily have to appear at the end of a section, though they usually do. The footer element is not sectioning content ; it doesn’t introduce a new section. Here is an example which shows the footer element being used both for a site-wide footer and for a section footer. Some site designs have what is sometimes referred to as “fat footers” — footers that contain a lot of material, including images, links to other articles, links to pages for sending feedback, special offers The address element represents the contact information for its nearest article or body element ancestor.

If that is the body element , then the contact information applies to the document as a whole. The address element must not be used to represent arbitrary addresses e.

The p element is the appropriate element for marking up postal addresses in general. The address element must not contain information other than contact information. For example, the following is non-conforming use of the address element:.

Typically, the address element would be included along with other information in a footer element. The contact information for a node node is a collection of address elements defined by the first applicable entry from the following list:. The contact information consists of all the address elements that have node as an ancestor and do not have another body or article element ancestor that is a descendant of node.

The contact information of node is the same as the contact information of the nearest article or body element ancestor, whichever is nearest.

The contact information of node is the same as the contact information of the body element of the Document. User agents may expose the contact information of a node to the user, or use it for other purposes, such as indexing sections based on the sections’ contact information.

The h1 — h6 elements are headings. The first element of heading content in an element of sectioning content represents the heading for that section. Subsequent headings of equal or higher rank start new implied sections, headings of lower rank start implied subsections that are part of the previous one. In both cases, the element represents the heading of the implied section.

Certain elements are said to be sectioning roots , including blockquote and td elements. These elements can have their own outlines, but the sections and headings inside these elements do not contribute to the outlines of their ancestors. Sectioning content elements are always considered subsections of their nearest ancestor sectioning root or their nearest ancestor element of sectioning content , whichever is nearest, regardless of what implied sections other headings may have created.

Notice how the section ends the earlier implicit section so that a later paragraph “Grunt” is back at the top level. Sections may contain headings of any rank , but authors are strongly encouraged to either use only h1 elements, or to use elements of the appropriate rank for the section’s nesting level. Authors are also encouraged to explicitly wrap sections in elements of sectioning content , instead of relying on the implicit sections generated by having multiple headings in one element of sectioning content.

Both of the documents above are semantically identical and would produce the same outline in compliant user agents. This third example is also semantically identical, and might be easier to maintain e. This final example would need explicit style rules to be rendered well in legacy browsers.

Legacy browsers without CSS support would render all the headings as top-level headings. There are currently no known implementations of the outline algorithm in graphical browsers or assistive technology user agents, although the algorithm is implemented in other software such as conformance checkers.

Therefore the outline algorithm cannot be relied upon to convey document structure to users. Authors are advised to use heading rank h1 – h6 to convey document structure. This section defines an algorithm for creating an outline for a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element. It is defined in terms of a walk over the nodes of a DOM tree, in tree order , with each node being visited when it is entered and when it is exited during the walk.

The outline for a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element consists of a list of one or more potentially nested sections. The element for which an outline is created is said to be the outline’s owner. A section is a container that corresponds to some nodes in the original DOM tree. Each section can have one heading associated with it, and can contain any number of further nested sections. The algorithm for the outline also associates each node in the DOM tree with a particular section and potentially a heading.

The sections in the outline aren’t section elements, though some may correspond to such elements — they are merely conceptual sections. Section created for body node. Section implied for first h2 element. Section implied for second h2 element. The algorithm that must be followed during a walk of a DOM subtree rooted at a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element to determine that element’s outline is as follows:.

Let current outline target be null. It holds the element whose outline is being created. Let current section be null. It holds a pointer to a section , so that elements in the DOM can all be associated with a section. Create a stack to hold elements, which is used to handle nesting. Initialise this stack to empty. Walk over the DOM in tree order , starting with the sectioning content element or sectioning root element at the root of the subtree for which an outline is to be created, and trigger the first relevant step below for each element as the walk enters and exits it.

The element being exited is a heading content element or an element with a hidden attribute. Push the element being entered onto the stack. This causes the algorithm to skip that element and any descendants of the element. If the current section has no heading, create an implied heading and let that be the heading for the current section. Let current section be a newly created section for the current outline target element.

Let there be a new outline for the new current outline target , initialised with just the new current section as the only section in the outline. Pop the top element from the stack, and let the current outline target be that element. Let current section be the last section in the outline of the current outline target element. Append the outline of the sectioning content element being exited to the current section. This does not change which section is the last section in the outline.

If current outline target is not null, push current outline target onto the stack. Let current section be current outline target ‘s parent section. The current outline target is the element being exited, and it is the sectioning content element or a sectioning root element at the root of the subtree for which an outline is being generated.

If the current section has no heading, let the element being entered be the heading for the current section. Otherwise, if the element being entered has a rank equal to or higher than the heading of the last section of the outline of the current outline target , or if the heading of the last section of the outline of the current outline target is an implied heading, then create a new section and append it to the outline of the current outline target element, so that this new section is the new last section of that outline.

Let current section be that new section. Let the element being entered be the new heading for the current section. Heading loop : If the element being entered has a rank lower than the rank of the heading of the candidate section , then create a new section , and append it to candidate section. Let current section be this new section.

Abort these substeps. Let new candidate section be the section that contains candidate section in the outline of current outline target. This causes the algorithm to skip any descendants of the element. Recall that h1 has the highest rank, and h6 has the lowest rank.

In addition, whenever the walk exits a node, after doing the steps above, if the node is not associated with a section yet, associate the node with the section current section. Associate all non-element nodes that are in the subtree for which an outline is being created with the section with which their parent element is associated. Associate all nodes in the subtree with the heading of the section with which they are associated, if any.

The tree of sections created by the algorithm above, or a proper subset thereof, must be used when generating document outlines, for example when generating tables of contents. The outline created for the body element of a Document is the outline of the entire document.

When creating an interactive table of contents, entries should jump the user to the relevant sectioning content element, if the section was created for a real element in the original document, or to the relevant heading content element, if the section in the tree was generated for a heading in the above process.

Selecting the first section of the document therefore always takes the user to the top of the document, regardless of where the first heading in the body is to be found.

The outline depth of a heading content element associated with a section section is the number of sections that are ancestors of section in the outermost outline that section finds itself in when the outlines of its Document ‘s elements are created, plus 1.

The outline depth of a heading content element not associated with a section is 1. User agents should provide default headings for sections that do not have explicit section headings.

Although it contains no headings, this snippet has three sections: a document the body with two subsections a nav and an aside. A user agent could present the outline as follows:. These default headings “Untitled document”, “Navigation”, “Sidebar” are not specified by this specification, and might vary with the user’s language, the page’s language, the user’s preferences, the user agent implementor’s preferences, etc. The following JavaScript function shows how the tree walk could be implemented.

The root argument is the root of the tree to walk either a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element , and the enter and exit arguments are callbacks that are called with the nodes as they are entered and exited. The following document shows a straight-forward application of the outline algorithm.

First, here is the document, which is a book with very short chapters and subsections:. Notice that the title element does not participate in the outline. Here is a similar document, but this time using section elements to get the same effect:. Effectively, the body element is split into three. Consider for example the following, which is just the previous example but with the contents of the implied body wrapped in a section :.

This result is described as unintuitive because it results in three subsections even though there’s only one section element. Effectively, the section is split into three, just like the implied body element in the previous example. In this example, ” untitled page ” is the implied heading for the body element, since it has no explicit heading.

Headings never rise above other sections. Thus, in the following example, the first h1 does not actually describe the page header; it describes the header for the second half of the page:. Thus, when an article element starts with a nav block and only later has its heading, the result is that the nav block is not part of the same section as the rest of the article in the outline. For instance, take this document:. Also worthy of note in this example is that the header and main elements have no effect whatsoever on the document outline.

User agents are encouraged to expose page outlines to users to aid in navigation. This is especially true for non-visual media, e. However, to mitigate the difficulties that arise from authors misusing sectioning content , user agents are also encouraged to offer a mode that navigates the page using heading content alone.

Plus in addition, the user agent could map the j and k keys to navigating to the previous or next element of heading content , regardless of the section’s outline depth and ignoring sections with no headings.

A section forms part of something else. An article is its own thing. But how does one know which is which? Mostly the real answer is “it depends on author intent”.

For example, one could imagine a book with a “Granny Smith” chapter that just said “These juicy, green apples make a great filling for apple pies. On the other hand, one could imagine a tweet or reddit comment or tumblr post or newspaper classified ad that just said “Granny Smith. These juicy, green apples make a great filling for apple pies. A comment on an article is not part of the article on which it is commenting, therefore it is its own article.

The p element represents a paragraph. The p element should not be used when a more specific element is more appropriate. List elements in particular, ol and ul elements cannot be children of p elements.

When a sentence contains a bulleted list, therefore, one might wonder how it should be marked up. The solution is to realise that a paragraph , in HTML terms, is not a logical concept, but a structural one.

In the fantastic example above, there are actually five paragraphs as defined by this specification: one before the list, one for each bullet, and one after the list. Authors wishing to conveniently style such “logical” paragraphs consisting of multiple “structural” paragraphs can use the div element instead of the p element.

This example still has five structural paragraphs, but now the author can style just the div instead of having to consider each part of the example separately. The hr element represents a paragraph -level thematic break, e. The following fictional extract from a project manual shows two sections that use the hr element to separate topics within the section. There is no need for an hr element between the sections themselves, since the section elements and the h1 elements imply thematic changes themselves.

The following extract from Pandora’s Star by Peter F. Hamilton shows two paragraphs that precede a scene change and the paragraph that follows it. The scene change, represented in the printed book by a gap containing a solitary centered star between the second and third paragraphs, is here represented using the hr element.

The hr element does not affect the document’s outline. The pre element represents a block of preformatted text, in which structure is represented by typographic conventions rather than by elements. In the HTML syntax , a leading newline character immediately following the pre element start tag is stripped. Some examples of cases where the pre element could be used:. Authors are encouraged to consider how preformatted text will be experienced when the formatting is lost, as will be the case for users of speech synthesizers, braille displays, and the like.

For cases like ASCII art, it is likely that an alternative presentation, such as a textual description, would be more universally accessible to the readers of the document. To represent a block of computer code, the pre element can be used with a code element; to represent a block of computer output the pre element can be used with a samp element.

Similarly, the kbd element can be used within a pre element to indicate text that the user is to enter. This element has rendering requirements involving the bidirectional algorithm.

In the following snippet, samp and kbd elements are mixed in the contents of a pre element to show a session of Zork I. The following shows a contemporary poem that uses the pre element to preserve its unusual formatting, which forms an intrinsic part of the poem itself. The blockquote element represents content that is quoted from another source, optionally with a citation which must be within a footer or cite element, and optionally with in-line changes such as annotations and abbreviations.

Content inside a blockquote other than citations and in-line changes must be quoted from another source, whose address, if it has one, may be cited in the cite attribute. In cases where a page contains contributions from multiple people, such as comments on a blog post, ‘ another source ‘ can include text from the same page, written by another person.

If the cite attribute is present, it must be a valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces. To obtain the corresponding citation link, the value of the attribute must be resolved relative to the element. User agents may allow users to follow such citation links, but they are primarily intended for private use e. The cite IDL attribute must reflect the element’s cite content attribute. The content of a blockquote may be abbreviated, may have context added or may have annotations.

Any such additions or changes to quoted text must be indicated in the text at the text level. This may mean the use of notational conventions or explicit remarks, such as “emphasis mine”. For example, in English, abbreviations are traditionally identified using square brackets. Consider a page with the sentence “Fred ate the cracker. He then said he liked apples and fish.

Quotation marks may be used to delineate between quoted text and annotations within a blockquote. In the example above, the citation is contained within the footer of a figure element, this groups and associates the information, about the quote, with the quote.

The figcaption element was not used, in this case, as a container for the citation as it is not a caption. Attribution for the quotation, may be be placed inside the blockquote element, but must be within a cite element for in-text attributions or within a footer element. For example, here the attribution is given in a footer after the quoted text, to clearly relate the quote to its attribution:.

Here the attribution is given in a cite element on the last line of the quoted text. Note that a link to the author is also included. Here the attribution is given in a footer after the quoted text, and metadata about the reference has been added using the Microdata syntax note it could have equally been marked up using RDFA Lite.

There is no formal method for indicating the markup in a blockquote is from a quoted source. It is suggested that if the footer or cite elements are included and these elements are also being used within a blockquote to identify citations, the elements from the quoted source could be annotated with metadata to identify their origin, for example by using the class attribute a defined extensibility mechanism.

In this example the source of a quote includes a cite element, which is annotated using the class attribute:. Here a blockquote element is used in conjunction with a figure element and its figcaption :. This next example shows the use of cite alongside blockquote :. This example shows how a forum post could use blockquote to show what post a user is replying to. The article element is used for each post, to mark up the threading.

This example shows the use of a blockquote for short snippets, demonstrating that one does not have to use p elements inside blockquote elements:. Examples of how to represent a conversation are shown in a later section; it is not appropriate to use the cite and blockquote elements for this purpose.

The ol element represents a list of items, where the items have been intentionally ordered, such that changing the order would change the meaning of the document. The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ol element, in tree order. The reversed attribute is a boolean attribute. If present, it indicates that the list is a descending list If the attribute is omitted, the list is an ascending list 1, 2, 3, The start attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the first list item.

If the start attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer , in order to determine the attribute’s value. The default value, used if the attribute is missing or if the value cannot be converted to a number according to the referenced algorithm, is 1 if the element has no reversed attribute, and is the number of child li elements otherwise.

The first item in the list has the ordinal value given by the ol element’s start attribute, unless that li element has a value attribute with a value that can be successfully parsed, in which case it has the ordinal value given by that value attribute. Each subsequent item in the list has the ordinal value given by its value attribute, if it has one, or, if it doesn’t, the ordinal value of the previous item, plus one if the reversed is absent, or minus one if it is present.

The type attribute can be used to specify the kind of marker to use in the list, in the cases where that matters e. The attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a case-sensitive match for one of the characters given in the first cell of one of the rows of the following table. The type attribute represents the state given in the cell in the second column of the row whose first cell matches the attribute’s value; if none of the cells match, or if the attribute is omitted, then the attribute represents the decimal state.

User agents should render the items of the list in a manner consistent with the state of the type attribute of the ol element. Numbers less than or equal to zero should always use the decimal system regardless of the type attribute. For CSS user agents, a mapping for this attribute to the ‘list-style-type’ CSS property is given in the rendering section the mapping is straightforward: the states above have the same names as their corresponding CSS values.

It is possible to redefine the default CSS list styles used to implement this attribute in CSS user agents; doing so will affect how list items are rendered. The reversed , start , and type IDL attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name. The start IDL attribute has the same default as its content attribute. The following markup shows a list where the order matters, and where the ol element is therefore appropriate. Compare this list to the equivalent list in the ul section to see an example of the same items using the ul element.

Note how changing the order of the list changes the meaning of the document. In the following example, changing the relative order of the first two items has changed the birthplace of the author:. The ul element represents a list of items, where the order of the items is not important — that is, where changing the order would not materially change the meaning of the document.

The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ul element. The following markup shows a list where the order does not matter, and where the ul element is therefore appropriate. Compare this list to the equivalent list in the ol section to see an example of the same items using the ol element. Note that changing the order of the list does not change the meaning of the document.

The items in the snippet above are given in alphabetical order, but in the snippet below they are given in order of the size of their current account balance in , without changing the meaning of the document whatsoever:.

The li element represents a list item. If its parent element is an ol , ul , or menu element, then the element is an item of the parent element’s list, as defined for those elements.

Otherwise, the list item has no defined list-related relationship to any other li element. If the parent element is an ol element, then the li element has an ordinal value. The value attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the list item. If the value attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer , in order to determine the attribute’s value. If the attribute’s value cannot be converted to a number, the attribute must be treated as if it was absent.

The attribute has no default value. The value attribute is processed relative to the element’s parent ol element q. If there is not, the attribute has no effect. The value IDL attribute must reflect the value of the value content attribute. The following example, the top ten movies are listed in reverse order.

Note the way the list is given a title by using a figure element and its figcaption element. The markup could also be written as follows, using the reversed attribute on the ol element:. While it is conforming to include heading elements e.

A heading starts a new section, so a heading in a list implicitly splits the list into spanning multiple sections. The dl element represents an association list consisting of zero or more name-value groups a description list. A name-value group consists of one or more names dt elements followed by one or more values dd elements , ignoring any nodes other than dt and dd elements. Within a single dl element, there should not be more than one dt element for each name.

Name-value groups may be terms and definitions, metadata topics and values, questions and answers, or any other groups of name-value data. The values within a group are alternatives; multiple paragraphs forming part of the same value must all be given within the same dd element.

The order of the list of groups, and of the names and values within each group, may be significant. If a dl element has no dt or dd element children, it contains no groups. If a dl element has one or more non- whitespace Text node children, or has child elements that are neither dt nor dd elements, all such Text nodes and elements, as well as their descendants including any dt or dd elements , do not form part of any groups in that dl. If a dl element has one or more dt element children but no dd element children, then it consists of one group with names but no values.

If a dl element has one or more dd element children but no dt element children, then it consists of one group with values but no names. If a dl element’s first dt or dd element child is a dd element, then the first group has no associated name. If a dl element’s last dt or dd element child is a dt element, then the last group has no associated value. When a dl element doesn’t match its content model, it is often due to accidentally using dd elements in the place of dt elements and vice versa.

Conformance checkers can spot such mistakes and might be able to advise authors how to correctly use the markup. The following example illustrates the use of the dl element to mark up metadata of sorts. At the end of the example, one group has two metadata labels “Authors” and “Editors” and two values “Robert Rothman” and “Daniel Jackson”.

The following example shows the dl element used to give a set of instructions. The order of the instructions here is important in the other examples, the order of the blocks was not important. The following snippet shows a dl element being used as a glossary. Note the use of dfn to indicate the word being defined. The dl element is inappropriate for marking up dialogue. Examples of how to mark up dialogue are shown below. The dt element represents the term, or name, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element.

The dt element itself, when used in a dl element, does not indicate that its contents are a term being defined, but this can be indicated using the dfn element. This example shows a list of frequently asked questions a FAQ marked up using the dt element for questions and the dd element for answers.

The dd element represents the description, definition, or value, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element. A dl can be used to define a vocabulary list, like in a dictionary.

In the following example, each entry, given by a dt with a dfn , has several dd s, showing the various parts of the definition. The figure element represents some flow content , optionally with a caption, that is self-contained like a complete sentence and is typically referenced as a single unit from the main flow of the document. Self-contained in this context does not necessarily mean independent.

For example, each sentence in a paragraph is self-contained; an image that is part of a sentence would be inappropriate for figure , but an entire sentence made of images would be fitting.

When a figure is referred to from the main content of the document by identifying it by its caption e. If a figure element is referenced by its relative position, e.

Authors are encouraged to consider using labels to refer to figures, rather than using such relative references, so that the page can easily be restyled without affecting the page’s meaning. The first figcaption element child of the element, if any, represents the caption of the figure element’s contents. If there is no child figcaption element, then there is no caption. A figure element’s contents are part of the surrounding flow.

If the purpose of the page is to display the figure, for example a photograph on an image sharing site, the figure and figcaption elements can be used to explicitly provide a caption for that figure. For content that is only tangentially related, or that serves a separate purpose than the surrounding flow, the aside element should be used and can itself wrap a figure. For example, a pull quote that repeats content from an article would be more appropriate in an aside than in a figure , because it isn’t part of the content, it’s a repetition of the content for the purposes of enticing readers or highlighting key topics.

This example shows the figure element to mark up a code listing. Here we see a figure element to mark up a photo that is the main content of the page as in a gallery. In this example, we see an image that is not a figure, as well as an image and a video that are.

The first image is literally part of the example’s second sentence, so it’s not a self-contained unit, and thus figure would be inappropriate. Here, a part of a poem is marked up using figure. In this example, which could be part of a much larger work discussing a castle, nested figure elements are used to provide both a group caption and individual captions for each figure in the group:.

The figcaption element represents a caption or legend for the rest of the contents of the figcaption element’s parent figure element, if any. The main element represents the main content of the body of a document or application. The main content area consists of content that is directly related to or expands upon the central topic of a document or central functionality of an application. The main element is not sectioning content and has no effect on the document outline.

The main content area of a document includes content that is unique to that document and excludes content that is repeated across a set of documents such as site navigation links, copyright information, site logos and banners and search forms unless the document or applications main function is that of a search form. User agents that support keyboard navigation of content are strongly encouraged to provide a method to navigate to the main element and once navigated to, ensure the next element in the focus order is the first focusable element within the main element.

This will provide a simple method for keyboard users to bypass blocks of content such as navigation links. Authors must not include more than one main element in a document. Authors must not include the main element as a descendant of an article , aside , footer , header or nav element. The main element is not suitable for use to identify the main content areas of sub sections of a document or application.

The simplest solution is to not mark up the main content of a sub section at all, and just leave it as implicit, but an author could use a grouping content or sectioning content element as appropriate.

In the following example, we see 2 articles about skateboards the main topic of a Web page the main topic content is identified by the use of the main element. Here is a graduation programme where the main content section is defined by the use of the main element.

Note in this example the main element contains a nav element consisting of links to sub sections of the main content. The div element has no special meaning at all.

It represents its children. It can be used with the class , lang , and title attributes to mark up semantics common to a group of consecutive elements. Authors are strongly encouraged to view the div element as an element of last resort, for when no other element is suitable.

Use of more appropriate elements instead of the div element leads to better accessibility for readers and easier maintainability for authors.

For example, a blog post would be marked up using article , a chapter using section , a page’s navigation aids using nav , and a group of form controls using fieldset.

On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way. In the following example, we see div elements used as a way to set the language of two paragraphs at once, instead of setting the language on the two paragraph elements separately:.

If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink a hypertext anchor labeled by its contents. If the a element has no href attribute, then the element represents a placeholder for where a link might otherwise have been placed, if it had been relevant, consisting of just the element’s contents. The target , download , rel , hreflang , and type attributes must be omitted if the href attribute is not present.

If the itemprop attribute is specified on an a element, then the href attribute must also be specified. If a site uses a consistent navigation toolbar on every page, then the link that would normally link to the page itself could be marked up using an a element:. The href , target , download attributes affect what happens when users follow hyperlinks or download hyperlinks created using the a element.

The rel , hreflang , and type attributes may be used to indicate to the user the likely nature of the target resource before the user follows the link. The activation behaviour of a elements that create hyperlinks is to run the following steps:.

If the a element’s node document is not fully active , then abort these steps. If either the a element has a download attribute and the algorithm is not allowed to show a popup ; or, if the user has not indicated a specific browsing context for following the link, and the element’s target attribute is present, and applying the rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing context name , using the value of the target attribute as the browsing context name, would result in there not being a chosen browsing context, then run these substeps:.

If there is an entry settings object , throw an InvalidAccessError exception. If the target of the click event is an img element with an ismap attribute specified, then server-side image map processing must be performed, as follows:. Finally, the user agent must follow the hyperlink or download the hyperlink created by the a element, as determined by the download attribute and any expressed user preference.

If the steps above defined a hyperlink suffix , then take that into account when following or downloading the hyperlink. Same as textContent. The IDL attributes download , target , rel , hreflang , and type , must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The text IDL attribute, on getting, must return the same value as the textContent IDL attribute on the element, and on setting, must act as if the textContent IDL attribute on the element had been set to the new value.

The a element also supports the URLUtils interface. When the element is created, and whenever the element’s href content attribute is set, changed, or removed, the user agent must invoke the element’s URLUtils interface’s set the input algorithm with the value of the href content attribute, if any, or the null value otherwise, as the given value.

The element’s URLUtils interface’s query encoding is the document’s character encoding. When the element’s URLUtils interface invokes its update steps with a string value , the user agent must set the element’s href content attribute to the string value. The a element may be wrapped around entire paragraphs, lists, tables, and so forth, even entire sections, so long as there is no interactive content within e. This example shows how this can be used to make an entire advertising block into a link:.

The em element represents stress emphasis of its contents. The level of stress that a particular piece of content has is given by its number of ancestor em elements. The placement of stress emphasis changes the meaning of the sentence. The element thus forms an integral part of the content. The precise way in which stress is used in this way depends on the language. These examples show how changing the stress emphasis changes the meaning. First, a general statement of fact, with no stress:.

By emphasizing the first word, the statement implies that the kind of animal under discussion is in question maybe someone is asserting that dogs are cute :. Moving the stress to the verb, one highlights that the truth of the entire sentence is in question maybe someone is saying cats are not cute :.

By moving it to the adjective, the exact nature of the cats is reasserted maybe someone suggested cats were mean animals :. Similarly, if someone asserted that cats were vegetables, someone correcting this might emphasise the last word:.

By emphasizing the entire sentence, it becomes clear that the speaker is fighting hard to get the point across. This kind of stress emphasis also typically affects the punctuation, hence the exclamation mark here.

The em element isn’t a generic “italics” element. Sometimes, text is intended to stand out from the rest of the paragraph, as if it was in a different mood or voice. For this, the i element is more appropriate. The em element also isn’t intended to convey importance; for that purpose, the strong element is more appropriate.

The strong element represents strong importance, seriousness, or urgency for its contents. Importance : The strong element can be used in a heading, caption, or paragraph to distinguish the part that really matters from other parts that might be more detailed, more jovial, or merely boilerplate.

For example, the first word of the previous paragraph is marked up with strong to distinguish it from the more detailed text in the rest of the paragraph. Seriousness : The strong element can be used to mark up a warning or caution notice. Urgency : The strong element can be used to denote contents that the user needs to see sooner than other parts of the document.

The relative level of importance of a piece of content is given by its number of ancestor strong elements; each strong element increases the importance of its contents.

Changing the importance of a piece of text with the strong element does not change the meaning of the sentence. Here, the word “chapter” and the actual chapter number are mere boilerplate, and the actual name of the chapter is marked up with strong :.

In the following example, the name of the diagram in the caption is marked up with strong , to distinguish it from boilerplate text before and the description after :. In this example, the heading is really “Flowers, Bees, and Honey”, but the author has added a light-hearted addition to the heading. The strong element is thus used to mark up the first part to distinguish it from the latter part. Here is an example of a warning notice in a game, with the various parts marked up according to how important they are:.

In this example, the strong element is used to denote the part of the text that the user is intended to read first. The small element represents side comments such as small print. Small print typically features disclaimers, caveats, legal restrictions, or copyrights. Small print is also sometimes used for attribution, or for satisfying licensing requirements. The small element does not “de-emphasize” or lower the importance of text emphasized by the em element or marked as important with the strong element.

To mark text as not emphasized or important, simply do not mark it up with the em or strong elements respectively. The small element should not be used for extended spans of text, such as multiple paragraphs, lists, or sections of text.

It is only intended for short runs of text. The text of a page listing terms of use, for instance, would not be a suitable candidate for the small element: in such a case, the text is not a side comment, it is the main content of the page. The small element must not be used for subheadings. In this example, the small element is used to indicate that value-added tax is not included in a price of a hotel room:.

In this second example, the small element is used for a side comment in an article. This is distinct from a sidebar, which might be multiple paragraphs long and is removed from the main flow of text. In the following example, we see a sidebar from the same article. This sidebar also has small print, indicating the source of the information in the sidebar.

In this last example, the small element is marked as being important small print. The s element represents contents that are no longer accurate or no longer relevant.

The s element is not appropriate when indicating document edits; to mark a span of text as having been removed from a document, use the del element. In this example a recommended retail price has been marked as no longer relevant as the product in question has a new sale price. The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. It must include the title of the work or the name of the author person, people or organization or an URL reference, or a reference in abbreviated form as per the conventions used for the addition of citation metadata.

Creative works include a book, a paper, an essay, a poem, a score, a song, a script, a film, a TV show, a game, a sculpture, a painting, a theatre production, a play, an opera, a musical, an exhibition, a legal case report, a computer program, , a web site, a web page, a blog post or comment, a forum post or comment, a tweet, a written or oral statement, etc.

Here is an example of the author of a quote referenced using the cite element:. This second example identifies the author of a tweet by referencing the authors name using the cite element:. In this example the cite element is used to reference the title of a work in a bibliography:. In this example the cite element is used to reference the title of a television show:.

A very common use for the cite element is to identify the author of a comment in a blog post or forum, as in this example:. Another common use for the cite element is to reference the URL of a search result, as in this example:. Where the cite element is used to identify an abbreviated reference such as Ibid. A citation is not a quote for which the q element is appropriate.

This is incorrect usage, because cite is not for quotes:. The q element represents some phrasing content quoted from another source. Quotation punctuation such as quotation marks that is quoting the contents of the element must not appear immediately before, after, or inside q elements; they will be inserted into the rendering by the user agent.

Content inside a q element must be quoted from another source, whose address, if it has one, may be cited in the cite attribute. The source may be fictional, as when quoting characters in a novel or screenplay.

The q element must not be used in place of quotation marks that do not represent quotes; for example, it is inappropriate to use the q element for marking up sarcastic statements. The use of q elements to mark up quotations is entirely optional; using explicit quotation punctuation without q elements is just as correct. Here is a simple example of the use of the q element:. Here is an example with both an explicit citation link in the q element, and an explicit citation outside:.

In the following example, quotation marks are used instead of the q element:. In the following example, there is no quote — the quotation marks are used to name a word. Use of the q element in this case would be inappropriate. The dfn element represents the defining instance of a term.

The paragraph , description list group , or section that is the nearest ancestor of the dfn element must also contain the definition s for the term given by the dfn element. Defining term : If the dfn element has a title attribute, then the exact value of that attribute is the term being defined. Otherwise, if it contains exactly one element child node and no child Text nodes, and that child element is an abbr element with a title attribute, then the exact value of that attribute is the term being defined.

Otherwise, it is the exact textContent of the dfn element that gives the term being defined. If the title attribute of the dfn element is present, then it must contain only the term being defined. The title attribute of ancestor elements does not affect dfn elements.

An a element that links to a dfn element represents an instance of the term defined by the dfn element. In the following fragment, the term “Garage Door Opener” is first defined in the first paragraph, then used in the second. In both cases, its abbreviation is what is actually displayed. With the addition of an a element, the reference can be made explicit:. The abbr element represents an abbreviation or acronym, optionally with its expansion.

The title attribute may be used to provide an expansion of the abbreviation. The attribute, if specified, must contain an expansion of the abbreviation, and nothing else. The paragraph below contains an abbreviation marked up with the abbr element.

This paragraph has two abbreviations. Notice how only one is defined; the other, with no expansion associated with it, does not use the abbr element. This paragraph marks up an abbreviation without giving an expansion, possibly as a hook to apply styles for abbreviations e. If an abbreviation is pluralized, the expansion’s grammatical number plural vs singular must match the grammatical number of the contents of the element. Abbreviations do not have to be marked up using this element.

It is expected to be useful in the following cases:. Providing an expansion in a title attribute once will not necessarily cause other abbr elements in the same document with the same contents but without a title attribute to behave as if they had the same expansion. Every abbr element is independent. The ruby element allows one or more spans of phrasing content to be marked with ruby annotations.

Ruby annotations are short runs of text presented alongside base text, primarily used in East Asian typography as a guide for pronunciation or to include other annotations.

In Japanese, this form of typography is also known as furigana. Ruby text can appear on either side, and sometimes both sides, of the base text, and it is possible to control its position using CSS. The content model of ruby elements consists of one or more of the following sequences:. The ruby , rb , rtc , and rt elements can be used for a variety of kinds of annotations, including in particular though by no means limited to those described below. Annotations the ruby text are associated individually with each ideographic character the base text.

In Japanese this is typically hiragana or katakana characters used to provide readings of kanji characters. When no rb element is used, the base is implied, as above. But you can also make it explicit. This can be useful notably for styling, or when consecutive bases are to be treated as a group, as in the jukugo ruby example further down. In the following example, notice how each annotation corresponds to a single base character. A general rule is that the section element is appropriate only if the element’s contents would be listed explicitly in the document’s outline.

Here is a graduation programme with two sections, one for the list of people graduating, and one for the description of the ceremony. The markup in this example features an uncommon style sometimes used to minimise the amount of inter-element whitespace. The nav element represents a section of a page that links to other pages or to parts within the page: a section with navigation links.

In cases where the content of a nav element represents a list of items, use list markup to aid understanding and navigation. Not all groups of links on a page need to be in a nav element — the element is primarily intended for sections that consist of major navigation blocks. In particular, it is common for footers to have a short list of links to various pages of a site, such as the terms of service, the home page, and a copyright page.

The footer element alone is sufficient for such cases; while a nav element can be used in such cases, it is usually unnecessary. User agents such as screen readers that are targeted at users who can benefit from navigation information being omitted in the initial rendering, or who can benefit from navigation information being immediately available, can use this element as a way to determine what content on the page to initially skip or provide on request or both.

In the following example, there are two nav elements, one for primary navigation around the site, and one for secondary navigation around the page itself.

In the following example, the page has several places where links are present, but only one of those places is considered a navigation section. Notice the main elements being used to wrap all the contents of the page other than the header and footer, and all the contents of the blog entry other than its header and footer.

You can also see microdata annotations in the above example that use the schema. A nav element doesn’t have to contain a list, it can contain other kinds of content as well. In this navigation block, links are provided in prose:. In this example, nav is used in an e-mail application, to let the user switch folders:. The aside element represents a section of a page that consists of content that is tangentially related to the content around the aside element, and which could be considered separate from that content.

Such sections are often represented as sidebars in printed typography. The element can be used for typographical effects like pull quotes or sidebars, for advertising, for groups of nav elements, and for other content that is considered separate from the main content of the page.

It’s not appropriate to use the aside element just for parentheticals, since those are part of the main flow of the document. The following example shows how an aside is used to mark up background material on Switzerland in a much longer news story on Europe. The following extract shows how aside can be used for blogrolls and other side content on a blog:. These elements represent headings for their sections. The semantics and meaning of these elements are defined in the section on headings and sections.

These elements have a rank given by the number in their name. The h1 element is said to have the highest rank, the h6 element has the lowest rank, and two elements with the same name have equal rank. Instead use the markup patterns in the Common idioms without dedicated elements section of the specification. As far as their respective document outlines their heading and section structures are concerned, these two snippets are semantically equivalent:.

Authors might prefer the former style for its terseness, or the latter style for its convenience in the face of heavy editing; which is best is purely an issue of preferred authoring style.

The two styles can be combined, for compatibility with legacy tools while still future-proofing for when that compatibility is no longer needed. This third snippet again has the same outline as the previous two:. The header element represents introductory content for its nearest ancestor sectioning content or sectioning root element. A header typically contains a group of introductory or navigational aids. When the nearest ancestor sectioning content or sectioning root element is the body element , then it applies to the whole page.

The header element is not sectioning content ; it doesn’t introduce a new section. In this example, the page has a page heading given by the h1 element, and two subsections whose headings are given by h2 elements.

The content after the header element is still part of the last subsection started in the header element, because the header element doesn’t take part in the outline algorithm. The footer element represents a footer for its nearest ancestor sectioning content or sectioning root element.

A footer typically contains information about its section such as who wrote it, links to related documents, copyright data, and the like. When the footer element contains entire sections, they represent appendices, indexes, long colophons, verbose license agreements, and other such content.

Contact information for the author or editor of a section belongs in an address element, possibly itself inside a footer.

Bylines and other information that could be suitable for both a header or a footer can be placed in either or neither. The primary purpose of these elements is merely to help the author write self-explanatory markup that is easy to maintain and style; they are not intended to impose specific structures on authors. Footers don’t necessarily have to appear at the end of a section, though they usually do. The footer element is not sectioning content ; it doesn’t introduce a new section.

Here is an example which shows the footer element being used both for a site-wide footer and for a section footer. Some site designs have what is sometimes referred to as “fat footers” — footers that contain a lot of material, including images, links to other articles, links to pages for sending feedback, special offers The address element represents the contact information for its nearest article or body element ancestor.

If that is the body element , then the contact information applies to the document as a whole. The address element must not be used to represent arbitrary addresses e. The p element is the appropriate element for marking up postal addresses in general. The address element must not contain information other than contact information. For example, the following is non-conforming use of the address element:.

Typically, the address element would be included along with other information in a footer element. The contact information for a node node is a collection of address elements defined by the first applicable entry from the following list:.

The contact information consists of all the address elements that have node as an ancestor and do not have another body or article element ancestor that is a descendant of node. The contact information of node is the same as the contact information of the nearest article or body element ancestor, whichever is nearest. The contact information of node is the same as the contact information of the body element of the Document.

User agents may expose the contact information of a node to the user, or use it for other purposes, such as indexing sections based on the sections’ contact information. The h1 — h6 elements are headings. The first element of heading content in an element of sectioning content represents the heading for that section. Subsequent headings of equal or higher rank start new implied sections, headings of lower rank start implied subsections that are part of the previous one.

In both cases, the element represents the heading of the implied section. Certain elements are said to be sectioning roots , including blockquote and td elements. These elements can have their own outlines, but the sections and headings inside these elements do not contribute to the outlines of their ancestors. Sectioning content elements are always considered subsections of their nearest ancestor sectioning root or their nearest ancestor element of sectioning content , whichever is nearest, regardless of what implied sections other headings may have created.

Notice how the section ends the earlier implicit section so that a later paragraph “Grunt” is back at the top level. Sections may contain headings of any rank , but authors are strongly encouraged to either use only h1 elements, or to use elements of the appropriate rank for the section’s nesting level. Authors are also encouraged to explicitly wrap sections in elements of sectioning content , instead of relying on the implicit sections generated by having multiple headings in one element of sectioning content.

Both of the documents above are semantically identical and would produce the same outline in compliant user agents. This third example is also semantically identical, and might be easier to maintain e.

This final example would need explicit style rules to be rendered well in legacy browsers. Legacy browsers without CSS support would render all the headings as top-level headings. There are currently no known implementations of the outline algorithm in graphical browsers or assistive technology user agents, although the algorithm is implemented in other software such as conformance checkers. Therefore the outline algorithm cannot be relied upon to convey document structure to users.

Authors are advised to use heading rank h1 – h6 to convey document structure. This section defines an algorithm for creating an outline for a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element. It is defined in terms of a walk over the nodes of a DOM tree, in tree order , with each node being visited when it is entered and when it is exited during the walk.

The outline for a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element consists of a list of one or more potentially nested sections. The element for which an outline is created is said to be the outline’s owner. A section is a container that corresponds to some nodes in the original DOM tree. Each section can have one heading associated with it, and can contain any number of further nested sections.

The algorithm for the outline also associates each node in the DOM tree with a particular section and potentially a heading. The sections in the outline aren’t section elements, though some may correspond to such elements — they are merely conceptual sections. Section created for body node. Section implied for first h2 element. Section implied for second h2 element.

The algorithm that must be followed during a walk of a DOM subtree rooted at a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element to determine that element’s outline is as follows:. Let current outline target be null. It holds the element whose outline is being created. Let current section be null. It holds a pointer to a section , so that elements in the DOM can all be associated with a section. Create a stack to hold elements, which is used to handle nesting. Initialise this stack to empty.

Walk over the DOM in tree order , starting with the sectioning content element or sectioning root element at the root of the subtree for which an outline is to be created, and trigger the first relevant step below for each element as the walk enters and exits it. The element being exited is a heading content element or an element with a hidden attribute.

Push the element being entered onto the stack. This causes the algorithm to skip that element and any descendants of the element. If the current section has no heading, create an implied heading and let that be the heading for the current section. Let current section be a newly created section for the current outline target element.

Let there be a new outline for the new current outline target , initialised with just the new current section as the only section in the outline. Pop the top element from the stack, and let the current outline target be that element.

Let current section be the last section in the outline of the current outline target element. Append the outline of the sectioning content element being exited to the current section. This does not change which section is the last section in the outline. If current outline target is not null, push current outline target onto the stack. Let current section be current outline target ‘s parent section. The current outline target is the element being exited, and it is the sectioning content element or a sectioning root element at the root of the subtree for which an outline is being generated.

If the current section has no heading, let the element being entered be the heading for the current section. Otherwise, if the element being entered has a rank equal to or higher than the heading of the last section of the outline of the current outline target , or if the heading of the last section of the outline of the current outline target is an implied heading, then create a new section and append it to the outline of the current outline target element, so that this new section is the new last section of that outline.

Let current section be that new section. Let the element being entered be the new heading for the current section. Heading loop : If the element being entered has a rank lower than the rank of the heading of the candidate section , then create a new section , and append it to candidate section.

Let current section be this new section. Abort these substeps. Let new candidate section be the section that contains candidate section in the outline of current outline target. This causes the algorithm to skip any descendants of the element. Recall that h1 has the highest rank, and h6 has the lowest rank. In addition, whenever the walk exits a node, after doing the steps above, if the node is not associated with a section yet, associate the node with the section current section.

Associate all non-element nodes that are in the subtree for which an outline is being created with the section with which their parent element is associated. Associate all nodes in the subtree with the heading of the section with which they are associated, if any.

The tree of sections created by the algorithm above, or a proper subset thereof, must be used when generating document outlines, for example when generating tables of contents.

The outline created for the body element of a Document is the outline of the entire document. When creating an interactive table of contents, entries should jump the user to the relevant sectioning content element, if the section was created for a real element in the original document, or to the relevant heading content element, if the section in the tree was generated for a heading in the above process.

Selecting the first section of the document therefore always takes the user to the top of the document, regardless of where the first heading in the body is to be found. The outline depth of a heading content element associated with a section section is the number of sections that are ancestors of section in the outermost outline that section finds itself in when the outlines of its Document ‘s elements are created, plus 1.

The outline depth of a heading content element not associated with a section is 1. User agents should provide default headings for sections that do not have explicit section headings. Although it contains no headings, this snippet has three sections: a document the body with two subsections a nav and an aside. A user agent could present the outline as follows:.

These default headings “Untitled document”, “Navigation”, “Sidebar” are not specified by this specification, and might vary with the user’s language, the page’s language, the user’s preferences, the user agent implementor’s preferences, etc. The following JavaScript function shows how the tree walk could be implemented. The root argument is the root of the tree to walk either a sectioning content element or a sectioning root element , and the enter and exit arguments are callbacks that are called with the nodes as they are entered and exited.

The following document shows a straight-forward application of the outline algorithm. First, here is the document, which is a book with very short chapters and subsections:. Notice that the title element does not participate in the outline. Here is a similar document, but this time using section elements to get the same effect:. Effectively, the body element is split into three.

Consider for example the following, which is just the previous example but with the contents of the implied body wrapped in a section :.

This result is described as unintuitive because it results in three subsections even though there’s only one section element. Effectively, the section is split into three, just like the implied body element in the previous example. In this example, ” untitled page ” is the implied heading for the body element, since it has no explicit heading. Headings never rise above other sections. Thus, in the following example, the first h1 does not actually describe the page header; it describes the header for the second half of the page:.

Thus, when an article element starts with a nav block and only later has its heading, the result is that the nav block is not part of the same section as the rest of the article in the outline.

For instance, take this document:. Also worthy of note in this example is that the header and main elements have no effect whatsoever on the document outline. User agents are encouraged to expose page outlines to users to aid in navigation. This is especially true for non-visual media, e. However, to mitigate the difficulties that arise from authors misusing sectioning content , user agents are also encouraged to offer a mode that navigates the page using heading content alone.

Plus in addition, the user agent could map the j and k keys to navigating to the previous or next element of heading content , regardless of the section’s outline depth and ignoring sections with no headings.

A section forms part of something else. An article is its own thing. But how does one know which is which? Mostly the real answer is “it depends on author intent”. For example, one could imagine a book with a “Granny Smith” chapter that just said “These juicy, green apples make a great filling for apple pies. On the other hand, one could imagine a tweet or reddit comment or tumblr post or newspaper classified ad that just said “Granny Smith.

These juicy, green apples make a great filling for apple pies. A comment on an article is not part of the article on which it is commenting, therefore it is its own article. The p element represents a paragraph. The p element should not be used when a more specific element is more appropriate.

List elements in particular, ol and ul elements cannot be children of p elements. When a sentence contains a bulleted list, therefore, one might wonder how it should be marked up. The solution is to realise that a paragraph , in HTML terms, is not a logical concept, but a structural one. In the fantastic example above, there are actually five paragraphs as defined by this specification: one before the list, one for each bullet, and one after the list.

Authors wishing to conveniently style such “logical” paragraphs consisting of multiple “structural” paragraphs can use the div element instead of the p element.

This example still has five structural paragraphs, but now the author can style just the div instead of having to consider each part of the example separately. The hr element represents a paragraph -level thematic break, e. The following fictional extract from a project manual shows two sections that use the hr element to separate topics within the section. There is no need for an hr element between the sections themselves, since the section elements and the h1 elements imply thematic changes themselves.

The following extract from Pandora’s Star by Peter F. Hamilton shows two paragraphs that precede a scene change and the paragraph that follows it. The scene change, represented in the printed book by a gap containing a solitary centered star between the second and third paragraphs, is here represented using the hr element.

The hr element does not affect the document’s outline. The pre element represents a block of preformatted text, in which structure is represented by typographic conventions rather than by elements. In the HTML syntax , a leading newline character immediately following the pre element start tag is stripped.

Some examples of cases where the pre element could be used:. Authors are encouraged to consider how preformatted text will be experienced when the formatting is lost, as will be the case for users of speech synthesizers, braille displays, and the like. For cases like ASCII art, it is likely that an alternative presentation, such as a textual description, would be more universally accessible to the readers of the document. To represent a block of computer code, the pre element can be used with a code element; to represent a block of computer output the pre element can be used with a samp element.

Similarly, the kbd element can be used within a pre element to indicate text that the user is to enter. This element has rendering requirements involving the bidirectional algorithm. In the following snippet, samp and kbd elements are mixed in the contents of a pre element to show a session of Zork I. The following shows a contemporary poem that uses the pre element to preserve its unusual formatting, which forms an intrinsic part of the poem itself. The blockquote element represents content that is quoted from another source, optionally with a citation which must be within a footer or cite element, and optionally with in-line changes such as annotations and abbreviations.

Content inside a blockquote other than citations and in-line changes must be quoted from another source, whose address, if it has one, may be cited in the cite attribute.

In cases where a page contains contributions from multiple people, such as comments on a blog post, ‘ another source ‘ can include text from the same page, written by another person.

If the cite attribute is present, it must be a valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces. To obtain the corresponding citation link, the value of the attribute must be resolved relative to the element.

User agents may allow users to follow such citation links, but they are primarily intended for private use e. The cite IDL attribute must reflect the element’s cite content attribute. The content of a blockquote may be abbreviated, may have context added or may have annotations. Any such additions or changes to quoted text must be indicated in the text at the text level. This may mean the use of notational conventions or explicit remarks, such as “emphasis mine”.

For example, in English, abbreviations are traditionally identified using square brackets. Consider a page with the sentence “Fred ate the cracker. He then said he liked apples and fish. Quotation marks may be used to delineate between quoted text and annotations within a blockquote.

In the example above, the citation is contained within the footer of a figure element, this groups and associates the information, about the quote, with the quote. The figcaption element was not used, in this case, as a container for the citation as it is not a caption. Attribution for the quotation, may be be placed inside the blockquote element, but must be within a cite element for in-text attributions or within a footer element. For example, here the attribution is given in a footer after the quoted text, to clearly relate the quote to its attribution:.

Here the attribution is given in a cite element on the last line of the quoted text. Note that a link to the author is also included. Here the attribution is given in a footer after the quoted text, and metadata about the reference has been added using the Microdata syntax note it could have equally been marked up using RDFA Lite.

There is no formal method for indicating the markup in a blockquote is from a quoted source. It is suggested that if the footer or cite elements are included and these elements are also being used within a blockquote to identify citations, the elements from the quoted source could be annotated with metadata to identify their origin, for example by using the class attribute a defined extensibility mechanism.

In this example the source of a quote includes a cite element, which is annotated using the class attribute:. Here a blockquote element is used in conjunction with a figure element and its figcaption :. This next example shows the use of cite alongside blockquote :. This example shows how a forum post could use blockquote to show what post a user is replying to. The article element is used for each post, to mark up the threading.

This example shows the use of a blockquote for short snippets, demonstrating that one does not have to use p elements inside blockquote elements:. Examples of how to represent a conversation are shown in a later section; it is not appropriate to use the cite and blockquote elements for this purpose.

The ol element represents a list of items, where the items have been intentionally ordered, such that changing the order would change the meaning of the document. The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ol element, in tree order. The reversed attribute is a boolean attribute. If present, it indicates that the list is a descending list If the attribute is omitted, the list is an ascending list 1, 2, 3, The start attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the first list item.

If the start attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer , in order to determine the attribute’s value. The default value, used if the attribute is missing or if the value cannot be converted to a number according to the referenced algorithm, is 1 if the element has no reversed attribute, and is the number of child li elements otherwise. The first item in the list has the ordinal value given by the ol element’s start attribute, unless that li element has a value attribute with a value that can be successfully parsed, in which case it has the ordinal value given by that value attribute.

Each subsequent item in the list has the ordinal value given by its value attribute, if it has one, or, if it doesn’t, the ordinal value of the previous item, plus one if the reversed is absent, or minus one if it is present.

The type attribute can be used to specify the kind of marker to use in the list, in the cases where that matters e. The attribute, if specified, must have a value that is a case-sensitive match for one of the characters given in the first cell of one of the rows of the following table. The type attribute represents the state given in the cell in the second column of the row whose first cell matches the attribute’s value; if none of the cells match, or if the attribute is omitted, then the attribute represents the decimal state.

User agents should render the items of the list in a manner consistent with the state of the type attribute of the ol element. Numbers less than or equal to zero should always use the decimal system regardless of the type attribute.

For CSS user agents, a mapping for this attribute to the ‘list-style-type’ CSS property is given in the rendering section the mapping is straightforward: the states above have the same names as their corresponding CSS values.

It is possible to redefine the default CSS list styles used to implement this attribute in CSS user agents; doing so will affect how list items are rendered. The reversed , start , and type IDL attributes must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name.

The start IDL attribute has the same default as its content attribute. The following markup shows a list where the order matters, and where the ol element is therefore appropriate.

Compare this list to the equivalent list in the ul section to see an example of the same items using the ul element. Note how changing the order of the list changes the meaning of the document. In the following example, changing the relative order of the first two items has changed the birthplace of the author:. The ul element represents a list of items, where the order of the items is not important — that is, where changing the order would not materially change the meaning of the document.

The items of the list are the li element child nodes of the ul element. The following markup shows a list where the order does not matter, and where the ul element is therefore appropriate.

Compare this list to the equivalent list in the ol section to see an example of the same items using the ol element. Note that changing the order of the list does not change the meaning of the document. The items in the snippet above are given in alphabetical order, but in the snippet below they are given in order of the size of their current account balance in , without changing the meaning of the document whatsoever:.

The li element represents a list item. If its parent element is an ol , ul , or menu element, then the element is an item of the parent element’s list, as defined for those elements. Otherwise, the list item has no defined list-related relationship to any other li element. If the parent element is an ol element, then the li element has an ordinal value.

The value attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the list item. If the value attribute is present, user agents must parse it as an integer , in order to determine the attribute’s value. If the attribute’s value cannot be converted to a number, the attribute must be treated as if it was absent. The attribute has no default value. The value attribute is processed relative to the element’s parent ol element q.

If there is not, the attribute has no effect. The value IDL attribute must reflect the value of the value content attribute. The following example, the top ten movies are listed in reverse order. Note the way the list is given a title by using a figure element and its figcaption element. The markup could also be written as follows, using the reversed attribute on the ol element:. While it is conforming to include heading elements e. A heading starts a new section, so a heading in a list implicitly splits the list into spanning multiple sections.

The dl element represents an association list consisting of zero or more name-value groups a description list. A name-value group consists of one or more names dt elements followed by one or more values dd elements , ignoring any nodes other than dt and dd elements. Within a single dl element, there should not be more than one dt element for each name.

Name-value groups may be terms and definitions, metadata topics and values, questions and answers, or any other groups of name-value data. The values within a group are alternatives; multiple paragraphs forming part of the same value must all be given within the same dd element. The order of the list of groups, and of the names and values within each group, may be significant. If a dl element has no dt or dd element children, it contains no groups. If a dl element has one or more non- whitespace Text node children, or has child elements that are neither dt nor dd elements, all such Text nodes and elements, as well as their descendants including any dt or dd elements , do not form part of any groups in that dl.

If a dl element has one or more dt element children but no dd element children, then it consists of one group with names but no values. If a dl element has one or more dd element children but no dt element children, then it consists of one group with values but no names. If a dl element’s first dt or dd element child is a dd element, then the first group has no associated name.

If a dl element’s last dt or dd element child is a dt element, then the last group has no associated value. When a dl element doesn’t match its content model, it is often due to accidentally using dd elements in the place of dt elements and vice versa. Conformance checkers can spot such mistakes and might be able to advise authors how to correctly use the markup. The following example illustrates the use of the dl element to mark up metadata of sorts.

At the end of the example, one group has two metadata labels “Authors” and “Editors” and two values “Robert Rothman” and “Daniel Jackson”. The following example shows the dl element used to give a set of instructions. The order of the instructions here is important in the other examples, the order of the blocks was not important.

The following snippet shows a dl element being used as a glossary. Note the use of dfn to indicate the word being defined. The dl element is inappropriate for marking up dialogue. Examples of how to mark up dialogue are shown below. The dt element represents the term, or name, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element.

The dt element itself, when used in a dl element, does not indicate that its contents are a term being defined, but this can be indicated using the dfn element. This example shows a list of frequently asked questions a FAQ marked up using the dt element for questions and the dd element for answers. The dd element represents the description, definition, or value, part of a term-description group in a description list dl element.

A dl can be used to define a vocabulary list, like in a dictionary. In the following example, each entry, given by a dt with a dfn , has several dd s, showing the various parts of the definition. The figure element represents some flow content , optionally with a caption, that is self-contained like a complete sentence and is typically referenced as a single unit from the main flow of the document.

Self-contained in this context does not necessarily mean independent. For example, each sentence in a paragraph is self-contained; an image that is part of a sentence would be inappropriate for figure , but an entire sentence made of images would be fitting. When a figure is referred to from the main content of the document by identifying it by its caption e.

If a figure element is referenced by its relative position, e. Authors are encouraged to consider using labels to refer to figures, rather than using such relative references, so that the page can easily be restyled without affecting the page’s meaning.

The first figcaption element child of the element, if any, represents the caption of the figure element’s contents. If there is no child figcaption element, then there is no caption.

A figure element’s contents are part of the surrounding flow. If the purpose of the page is to display the figure, for example a photograph on an image sharing site, the figure and figcaption elements can be used to explicitly provide a caption for that figure. For content that is only tangentially related, or that serves a separate purpose than the surrounding flow, the aside element should be used and can itself wrap a figure. For example, a pull quote that repeats content from an article would be more appropriate in an aside than in a figure , because it isn’t part of the content, it’s a repetition of the content for the purposes of enticing readers or highlighting key topics.

This example shows the figure element to mark up a code listing. Here we see a figure element to mark up a photo that is the main content of the page as in a gallery. In this example, we see an image that is not a figure, as well as an image and a video that are.

The first image is literally part of the example’s second sentence, so it’s not a self-contained unit, and thus figure would be inappropriate. Here, a part of a poem is marked up using figure. In this example, which could be part of a much larger work discussing a castle, nested figure elements are used to provide both a group caption and individual captions for each figure in the group:. The figcaption element represents a caption or legend for the rest of the contents of the figcaption element’s parent figure element, if any.

The main element represents the main content of the body of a document or application. The main content area consists of content that is directly related to or expands upon the central topic of a document or central functionality of an application.

The main element is not sectioning content and has no effect on the document outline. The main content area of a document includes content that is unique to that document and excludes content that is repeated across a set of documents such as site navigation links, copyright information, site logos and banners and search forms unless the document or applications main function is that of a search form. User agents that support keyboard navigation of content are strongly encouraged to provide a method to navigate to the main element and once navigated to, ensure the next element in the focus order is the first focusable element within the main element.

This will provide a simple method for keyboard users to bypass blocks of content such as navigation links. Authors must not include more than one main element in a document. Authors must not include the main element as a descendant of an article , aside , footer , header or nav element.

The main element is not suitable for use to identify the main content areas of sub sections of a document or application. The simplest solution is to not mark up the main content of a sub section at all, and just leave it as implicit, but an author could use a grouping content or sectioning content element as appropriate.

In the following example, we see 2 articles about skateboards the main topic of a Web page the main topic content is identified by the use of the main element. Here is a graduation programme where the main content section is defined by the use of the main element. Note in this example the main element contains a nav element consisting of links to sub sections of the main content. The div element has no special meaning at all. It represents its children. It can be used with the class , lang , and title attributes to mark up semantics common to a group of consecutive elements.

Authors are strongly encouraged to view the div element as an element of last resort, for when no other element is suitable.

Use of more appropriate elements instead of the div element leads to better accessibility for readers and easier maintainability for authors. For example, a blog post would be marked up using article , a chapter using section , a page’s navigation aids using nav , and a group of form controls using fieldset. On the other hand, div elements can be useful for stylistic purposes or to wrap multiple paragraphs within a section that are all to be annotated in a similar way.

In the following example, we see div elements used as a way to set the language of two paragraphs at once, instead of setting the language on the two paragraph elements separately:. If the a element has an href attribute, then it represents a hyperlink a hypertext anchor labeled by its contents.

If the a element has no href attribute, then the element represents a placeholder for where a link might otherwise have been placed, if it had been relevant, consisting of just the element’s contents. The target , download , rel , hreflang , and type attributes must be omitted if the href attribute is not present. If the itemprop attribute is specified on an a element, then the href attribute must also be specified.

If a site uses a consistent navigation toolbar on every page, then the link that would normally link to the page itself could be marked up using an a element:. The href , target , download attributes affect what happens when users follow hyperlinks or download hyperlinks created using the a element. The rel , hreflang , and type attributes may be used to indicate to the user the likely nature of the target resource before the user follows the link.

The activation behaviour of a elements that create hyperlinks is to run the following steps:. If the a element’s node document is not fully active , then abort these steps. If either the a element has a download attribute and the algorithm is not allowed to show a popup ; or, if the user has not indicated a specific browsing context for following the link, and the element’s target attribute is present, and applying the rules for choosing a browsing context given a browsing context name , using the value of the target attribute as the browsing context name, would result in there not being a chosen browsing context, then run these substeps:.

If there is an entry settings object , throw an InvalidAccessError exception. If the target of the click event is an img element with an ismap attribute specified, then server-side image map processing must be performed, as follows:. Finally, the user agent must follow the hyperlink or download the hyperlink created by the a element, as determined by the download attribute and any expressed user preference. If the steps above defined a hyperlink suffix , then take that into account when following or downloading the hyperlink.

Same as textContent. The IDL attributes download , target , rel , hreflang , and type , must reflect the respective content attributes of the same name. The text IDL attribute, on getting, must return the same value as the textContent IDL attribute on the element, and on setting, must act as if the textContent IDL attribute on the element had been set to the new value.

The a element also supports the URLUtils interface. When the element is created, and whenever the element’s href content attribute is set, changed, or removed, the user agent must invoke the element’s URLUtils interface’s set the input algorithm with the value of the href content attribute, if any, or the null value otherwise, as the given value.

The element’s URLUtils interface’s query encoding is the document’s character encoding. When the element’s URLUtils interface invokes its update steps with a string value , the user agent must set the element’s href content attribute to the string value. The a element may be wrapped around entire paragraphs, lists, tables, and so forth, even entire sections, so long as there is no interactive content within e.

This example shows how this can be used to make an entire advertising block into a link:. The em element represents stress emphasis of its contents. The level of stress that a particular piece of content has is given by its number of ancestor em elements. The placement of stress emphasis changes the meaning of the sentence. The element thus forms an integral part of the content.

The precise way in which stress is used in this way depends on the language. These examples show how changing the stress emphasis changes the meaning. First, a general statement of fact, with no stress:.

By emphasizing the first word, the statement implies that the kind of animal under discussion is in question maybe someone is asserting that dogs are cute :. Moving the stress to the verb, one highlights that the truth of the entire sentence is in question maybe someone is saying cats are not cute :. By moving it to the adjective, the exact nature of the cats is reasserted maybe someone suggested cats were mean animals :.

Similarly, if someone asserted that cats were vegetables, someone correcting this might emphasise the last word:. By emphasizing the entire sentence, it becomes clear that the speaker is fighting hard to get the point across. This kind of stress emphasis also typically affects the punctuation, hence the exclamation mark here.

The em element isn’t a generic “italics” element. Sometimes, text is intended to stand out from the rest of the paragraph, as if it was in a different mood or voice. For this, the i element is more appropriate. The em element also isn’t intended to convey importance; for that purpose, the strong element is more appropriate.

The strong element represents strong importance, seriousness, or urgency for its contents. Importance : The strong element can be used in a heading, caption, or paragraph to distinguish the part that really matters from other parts that might be more detailed, more jovial, or merely boilerplate.

For example, the first word of the previous paragraph is marked up with strong to distinguish it from the more detailed text in the rest of the paragraph. Seriousness : The strong element can be used to mark up a warning or caution notice. Urgency : The strong element can be used to denote contents that the user needs to see sooner than other parts of the document.

The relative level of importance of a piece of content is given by its number of ancestor strong elements; each strong element increases the importance of its contents. Changing the importance of a piece of text with the strong element does not change the meaning of the sentence.

Here, the word “chapter” and the actual chapter number are mere boilerplate, and the actual name of the chapter is marked up with strong :. In the following example, the name of the diagram in the caption is marked up with strong , to distinguish it from boilerplate text before and the description after :.

In this example, the heading is really “Flowers, Bees, and Honey”, but the author has added a light-hearted addition to the heading. The strong element is thus used to mark up the first part to distinguish it from the latter part.

Here is an example of a warning notice in a game, with the various parts marked up according to how important they are:. In this example, the strong element is used to denote the part of the text that the user is intended to read first. The small element represents side comments such as small print.

Small print typically features disclaimers, caveats, legal restrictions, or copyrights. Small print is also sometimes used for attribution, or for satisfying licensing requirements. The small element does not “de-emphasize” or lower the importance of text emphasized by the em element or marked as important with the strong element.

To mark text as not emphasized or important, simply do not mark it up with the em or strong elements respectively. The small element should not be used for extended spans of text, such as multiple paragraphs, lists, or sections of text.

It is only intended for short runs of text. The text of a page listing terms of use, for instance, would not be a suitable candidate for the small element: in such a case, the text is not a side comment, it is the main content of the page.

The small element must not be used for subheadings. In this example, the small element is used to indicate that value-added tax is not included in a price of a hotel room:.

In this second example, the small element is used for a side comment in an article. This is distinct from a sidebar, which might be multiple paragraphs long and is removed from the main flow of text. In the following example, we see a sidebar from the same article. This sidebar also has small print, indicating the source of the information in the sidebar.

In this last example, the small element is marked as being important small print. The s element represents contents that are no longer accurate or no longer relevant. The s element is not appropriate when indicating document edits; to mark a span of text as having been removed from a document, use the del element.

In this example a recommended retail price has been marked as no longer relevant as the product in question has a new sale price. The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. It must include the title of the work or the name of the author person, people or organization or an URL reference, or a reference in abbreviated form as per the conventions used for the addition of citation metadata. Creative works include a book, a paper, an essay, a poem, a score, a song, a script, a film, a TV show, a game, a sculpture, a painting, a theatre production, a play, an opera, a musical, an exhibition, a legal case report, a computer program, , a web site, a web page, a blog post or comment, a forum post or comment, a tweet, a written or oral statement, etc.

Here is an example of the author of a quote referenced using the cite element:. This second example identifies the author of a tweet by referencing the authors name using the cite element:. In this example the cite element is used to reference the title of a work in a bibliography:.

In this example the cite element is used to reference the title of a television show:. A very common use for the cite element is to identify the author of a comment in a blog post or forum, as in this example:. Another common use for the cite element is to reference the URL of a search result, as in this example:. Where the cite element is used to identify an abbreviated reference such as Ibid. A citation is not a quote for which the q element is appropriate. This is incorrect usage, because cite is not for quotes:.

The q element represents some phrasing content quoted from another source. Quotation punctuation such as quotation marks that is quoting the contents of the element must not appear immediately before, after, or inside q elements; they will be inserted into the rendering by the user agent.

Content inside a q element must be quoted from another source, whose address, if it has one, may be cited in the cite attribute. The source may be fictional, as when quoting characters in a novel or screenplay. The q element must not be used in place of quotation marks that do not represent quotes; for example, it is inappropriate to use the q element for marking up sarcastic statements. The use of q elements to mark up quotations is entirely optional; using explicit quotation punctuation without q elements is just as correct.

Here is a simple example of the use of the q element:. Here is an example with both an explicit citation link in the q element, and an explicit citation outside:. In the following example, quotation marks are used instead of the q element:.

In the following example, there is no quote — the quotation marks are used to name a word. Use of the q element in this case would be inappropriate. The dfn element represents the defining instance of a term. The paragraph , description list group , or section that is the nearest ancestor of the dfn element must also contain the definition s for the term given by the dfn element.


 
 

 

Iexplorer 4.2.7 keygen free download

 
Interactive user agents may provide users with a means to follow the hyperlinks created using the link element, somewhere within their user interface. The HTMLElement interface holds methods and attributes related to a number of disparate features, and the members of this interface are therefore described in various different sections of this specification. In particular, it is common for footers to have a short list of links to various pages of a site, such as the terms of service, the home page, and a copyright page. Your email address will not be published. When a ruby text annotation maps to a base that is comprised of more than one character, then that base is grouped. The value attribute, if present, must be a valid integer giving the ordinal value of the list item. Easy to use. The element being exited is a heading content element or an element with a hidden attribute.❿